Verses Where the Divine Name Does Not Appear as Part of Direct or Indirect Quotations in the Book of 2 Timothy
2 TIMOTHY 1:18
“mercy from Jehovah”
“mercy beside of Lord”
REASON(S) FOR RESTORING THE DIVINE NAME: At 2 Timothy 1:18, the Greek word for “Lord” (Kyʹri·os) appears twice. The first occurrence is preceded by the definite article and is rendered “the Lord.” (See study note on 2 Timothy 1:18.) However, in the second occurrence, the definite article does not appear before Kyʹri·os (Lord), where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage. The absence of the definite article here makes Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name and may indicate that a proper name originally appeared in the Greek text. Many scholars recognize that the absence of the definite article makes this second occurrence of Kyʹri·os correspond to the divine name.
Regarding the two occurrences of “Lord” at 2 Timothy 1:18, one commentator said: “The name Lord may here be applied first to Christ and then to God; but more likely the prayer is addressed in both clauses to God.”—The Moffatt New Testament Commentary, edited by James Moffatt, “The Pastoral Epistles,” by E. F. Scott, page 99.
A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, revised and edited by F. W. Danker, 2000, (pp. 576-577) lists 2 Timothy 1:18 under the definition of “lord” as “a designation of God.”
A translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew by German scholar Franz Delitzsch, 1892, uses the Tetragrammaton in the main text of this verse.
SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 14, 16-18, 22-24, 32, 41, 65, 94-96, 101, 106, 115, 117, 138, 144, 145, 147, 163, 310, 322-324
2 TIMOTHY 2:19b
“calling on the name of Jehovah”
“naming the name of Lord”
REASON(S) FOR RESTORING THE DIVINE NAME: Paul’s wording suggests that the statement “let everyone calling on the name of Jehovah renounce unrighteousness” is a quote from the Hebrew Scriptures. Yet, no text in the Hebrew Scriptures exactly matches Paul’s words. (See study note on 2 Timothy 2:19.) The expression “calling on the name of Jehovah” seems to allude to the wording at Isaiah 26:13 according to the Septuagint. The original Hebrew text of that verse clearly refers to the divine name. Scholars have suggested other scriptures from which these words may be quoted, for example, Leviticus 24:16 according to the Septuagint. Additionally, some Bible commentators have noted that this phrase resembles the phrase “everyone who calls on the name of Jehovah” that appears at Joel 2:32 and that is quoted at Acts 2:21 and Romans 10:13. (See study notes on Acts 2:21; Romans 10:13.) Further, the Greek definite article is missing before Kyʹri·os (Lord), where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage. This absence of the definite article makes Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name and may indicate that a proper name originally appeared in the Greek text.
The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists 2 Timothy 2:19b as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”
“Lord appears ambiguous, but since both of these quotations are presented as from the Old Testament, Lord obviously refers to God. . . . Part of it (who names the name of the Lord) comes from Lev[iticus] 24:16.”—A Handbook on Paul’s Letters to Timothy and to Titus, by Daniel C. Arichea and Howard A. Hatton, 1995, page 211.
SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J17, 18, 22-24, 28, 29, 33-35, 41, 46, 51, 65, 90, 93-96, 100, 101, 122, 133, 145, 147, 154, 310, 322
2 TIMOTHY 4:14
“Jehovah will repay him according to his deeds”
“will give back to him the Lord according to the works of him”
REASON(S) FOR RESTORING THE DIVINE NAME: Paul echoes several verses in the Hebrew Scriptures that refer to Jehovah God as the one who repays humans for their actions, whether good or bad. One example is Psalm 62:12, where the psalmist says: “O Jehovah, . . . you repay each one according to his deeds.” (See also Psalm 28:1, 4; Proverbs 24:12; Lamentations 3:64.) Paul makes a similar point at Romans 2:6, where he says about God: “He will pay back to each one according to his works.” And at Romans 12:19, which says: “Vengeance is mine; I will repay,” Paul quotes Jehovah’s words recorded at Deuteronomy 32:35. Although the Greek definite article is here used before the term for “Lord,” the clear Hebrew Scripture background supports using the divine name in the main text. Also, one reference work notes that at 2 Timothy 4:14, which uses the Greek verb for “repay,” God is the subject of the sentence, just as at Matthew 6:4, 6, 18 and Romans 2:6.—Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, edited by Horst Balz and Gerhard Schneider, 1990, Vol. 1, pages 127-128.
“It is a parenthetical quotation of the familiar words of Ps[alm 62:12] (cp. also Prov[erbs 24:12]), and merely amounts to the reflection ‘I leave him to God.’”—Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges, edited by J. Armitage Robinson, “The Pastoral Epistles With Introduction and Notes,” by J. H. Bernard, 1899, page 147.
“The Lord will repay him for what he has done echoes the Old Testament consolation of the righteous who suffer in the midst of the prospering wicked (Ps[alm] 28:4; 62:12; Prov[erbs] 24:12; Rom[ans] 12:17-21). Whatever God’s opponents might do to impede the gospel or harm us, God has the final say. Fear need not immobilize us.”—1-2 Timothy & Titus (The IVP New Testament Commentary Series), by Philip H. Towner, 1994, page 211.
SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 16-18, 22, 23, 32, 41, 65, 95, 100, 101, 106, 115, 146, 236, 310, 322-324