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Medical Information for Clinicians

The medical literature contains numerous reports of complex medical and surgical procedures performed successfully without transfusion of allogeneic whole blood or its primary components. Avoiding blood transfusion involves the optimal use of clinical strategies to minimize blood loss, conserve autologous blood, enhance hematopoiesis, and augment tolerance of anemia. This section contains citations of peer-reviewed articles from leading medical journals, presenting evidence in support of the use of autologous blood conservation and alternatives to blood transfusion.


Medicine and Surgery

Clinical strategies for managing hemorrhage and anemia without allogeneic blood transfusion.


Clinical strategies for managing neonatal and pediatric patients without allogeneic blood transfusion.

Diseases and Conditions

Clinical strategies for managing specific diseases or conditions without allogeneic blood transfusion.

Bioethics and Law

Ethical, legal, and social factors for health-care professionals to consider when treating Jehovah’s Witnesses.

Featured Articles

Iatrogenic blood loss in extreme preterm infants due to frequent laboratory tests and procedures. (opens new window)

Counsilman CE, Heeger LE, Tan R, Bekker V, Zwaginga JJ, Te Pas AB, Lopriore E

Source‎: J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2021;34(16):2660-65. 

Indexed‎: PubMed 31588840

DOI‎: 10.1080/14767058.2019.1670800 (opens new window)

Early prehospital tranexamic acid following injury is associated with a 30-day survival benefit: A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. (opens new window)

Li SR, Guyette F, Brown J, Zenati M, Reitz KM, Eastridge B, Nirula R, Vercruysse GA, O'Keeffe T, Joseph B, Neal MD, Zuckerbraun BS, Sperry JL

Source‎: Ann Surg. 2021;274(3):419-26. 

Indexed‎: PubMed 34132695

DOI‎: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000005002 (opens new window)

Safety and feasibility of urological procedures in Jehovah's Witness patients. (opens new window)

Han J, Ahmadi H, Ladi-Seyedian SS, Clifford TG, Douglawi A, Xu W, Bazargani ST, Mingo S, Thangathurai D, Daneshmand S, Djaladat H

Source‎: Int J Urol 2022;29(1):83-8.

Indexed‎: PubMed 34642972

DOI‎: 10.1111/iju.14721 (opens new window)

Women who decline blood during labour: Review of findings and lessons learnt from 52 years of Confidential Enquiries into maternal mortality in the United Kingdom (1962-2019). (opens new window)

Berg L, Dave A, Fernandez N, Brooks B, Madgwick K, Govind A, Yoong W

Source‎: Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2022;271:20-6.

Indexed‎: PubMed 35131631

DOI‎: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2022.01.028 (opens new window)

Eltrombopag added to immunosuppression in severe aplastic anemia. (opens new window)

Peffault de Latour R, Kulasekararaj A, Iacobelli S, Terwel SR, Cook R, Griffin M, Halkes CJM, Recher C, Barraco F, Forcade E, Vallejo JC, Drexler B, Mear JB, Smith AE, Angelucci E, Raymakers RAP, de Groot MR, Daguindau E, Nur E, Barcellini W, Russell NH, Terriou L, Iori AP, La Rocca U, Sureda A, Sánchez-Ortega I, Xicoy B, Jarque I, Cavenagh J, Sicre de Fontbrune F, Marotta S, Munir T, Tjon JML, Tavitian S, Praire A, Clement L, Rabian F, Marano L, Hill A, Palmisani E, Muus P, Cacace F, Frieri C, van Lint MT, Passweg JR, Marsh JCW, Socié G, Mufti GJ, Dufour C, Risitano AM; Severe Aplastic Anemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

Source‎: N Engl J Med 2022;386(1):11-23.

Indexed‎: PubMed 34986284

DOI‎: 10.1056/NEJMoa2109965 (opens new window)

Implementation of a comprehensive patient blood management program for hospitalized patients at a large united states medical center. (opens new window)

Warner MA, Schulte PJ, Hanson AC, Madde NR, Burt JM, Higgins AA, Andrijasevic NM, Kreuter JD, Jacob EK, Stubbs JR, Kor DJ

Source‎: Mayo Clin Proc. 2021;96(12):2980-90.

Indexed‎: PubMed 34736775

DOI‎: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2021.07.017 (opens new window)

Oral is as effective as intravenous tranexamic acid at reducing blood loss in thoracolumbar spinal fusions: a prospective randomized trial. (opens new window)

Yu CC, Fidai M, Washington T, Bartol S, Graziano G

Source‎: Spine 2022;47(2):91-8.

Indexed‎: PubMed 34224510

DOI‎: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000004157 (opens new window)

Determining optimal treatment to correct preoperative anemia and reduce perioperative allogeneic blood transfusions in cardiac surgery: a retrospective cohort study. (opens new window)

Peel JK, Trudeau J, Tano R, Jadunandan S, Callum J, Moussa F, Lin Y

Source‎: J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021;35(9):2631-9.

Indexed‎: PubMed 33483268

DOI‎: 10.1053/j.jvca.2020.12.044 (opens new window)

Transfusions and neurodevelopmental outcomes in extremely low gestation neonates enrolled in the PENUT Trial: a randomized clinical trial. (opens new window)

Vu PT, Ohls RK, Mayock DE, German KR, Comstock BA, Heagerty PJ, Juul SE; PENUT Consortium

Source‎: Pediatr Res 2021;90(1):109-16.

Indexed‎: PubMed 33432157

DOI‎: 10.1038/s41390-020-01273-w (opens new window)