teaching . . . preaching: Teaching differs from preaching in that the teacher does more than proclaim; he instructs, explains, uses persuasive arguments, and offers proof.—See study notes on Mt 3:1; 28:20.
teach and preach: See study note on Mt 4:23.
their cities: Evidently referring to the Jewish cities of that region (Galilee).
Christ: This title is derived from the Greek word Khri·stosʹ and is equivalent to the title “Messiah” (from Hebrew ma·shiʹach), both meaning “Anointed One.” In Bible times, rulers were ceremonially anointed with oil.
the Christ: Here the title “Christ” is preceded by the definite article in Greek, evidently as a way of emphasizing Jesus’ office as the Messiah.
the Christ: Here the title “Christ,” meaning “Anointed One,” is preceded by the definite article in Greek. This is a way of indicating that Jesus was the promised Messiah, the one who had been anointed in a special sense.—See study notes on Mt 1:1; 2:4.
a leper: A person suffering from a serious skin disease. The leprosy referred to in the Bible is not restricted to the disease known by that name today. Anyone diagnosed with leprosy became an outcast from society until he was cured.—Le 13:2, ftn., 45, 46; see Glossary, “Leprosy; Leper.”
look!: The Greek word i·douʹ, here rendered “look!,” is often used to focus attention on what follows, encouraging the reader to visualize the scene or to take note of a detail in a narrative. It is also used to add emphasis or to introduce something new or surprising. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, the term occurs most frequently in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke and in the book of Revelation. A corresponding expression is often used in the Hebrew Scriptures.
Look!: See study note on Mt 1:20.
Truly: Greek, a·menʹ, a transliteration of the Hebrew ʼa·menʹ, meaning “so be it,” or “surely.” Jesus frequently uses this expression to preface a statement, a promise, or a prophecy, thereby emphasizing its absolute truthfulness and reliability. Jesus’ use of “truly,” or amen, in this way is said to be unique in sacred literature. When repeated in succession (a·menʹ a·menʹ), as is the case throughout the Gospel of John, Jesus’ expression is translated “most truly.”—See study note on Joh 1:51.
the Baptist: Or “the Immerser; the Dipper”; referred to as “the Baptizer” at Mr 1:4; 6:14, 24. Evidently used as a sort of surname, indicating that baptizing by immersing in water was distinctive of John. The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus wrote of “John, surnamed the Baptist.”
Truly: See study note on Mt 5:18.
the Baptist: Or “the Immerser; the Dipper.”—See study note on Mt 3:1.
the goal toward which men press . . . those pressing forward: Two related Greek words used here convey the basic idea of forceful action or endeavor. Some Bible translators have understood them in a negative sense (that of acting with or suffering violence), but the context and the only other Biblical occurrence of the Greek verb, at Lu 16:16, make it reasonable to understand the terms in the positive sense of “going after something with enthusiasm; seeking fervently.” These words evidently describe the forceful actions or endeavors of those who responded to the preaching of John the Baptist, which put them in line to become prospective members of the Kingdom.
the Prophets and the Law: The reversal of the usual order, “the Law and the Prophets” (Mt 5:17; 7:12; 22:40; Lu 16:16), occurs only here. The general meaning is evidently the same (see study note on Mt 5:17), although the prophetic aspect of the Scriptures seems to be given more emphasis here. Even the Law is said to have prophesied, emphasizing its prophetic character.
the Law . . . the Prophets: “The Law” refers to the Bible books of Genesis through Deuteronomy. “The Prophets” refers to the prophetic books of the Hebrew Scriptures. However, when these terms are mentioned together, the expression could be understood to include the entire Hebrew Scriptures.—Mt 7:12; 22:40; Lu 16:16.
Elijah: From the Hebrew name meaning “My God Is Jehovah.”
neither eating nor drinking: This evidently refers to John’s life of self-denial, which included fasting as well as adhering to the Nazirite requirement of abstaining from alcoholic beverages.—Nu 6:2-4; Mt 9:14, 15; Lu 1:15; 7:33.
tax collectors: Many Jews collected taxes for the Roman authorities. People hated such Jews because they not only collaborated with a resented foreign power but also extorted more than the official tax rate. Tax collectors were generally shunned by fellow Jews, who put them on the same level as sinners and prostitutes.—Mt 11:19; 21:32.
Son of man: See study note on Mt 8:20.
tax collectors: See study note on Mt 5:46.
wisdom is proved righteous by its works: Here wisdom is personified and depicted as having works. In the parallel account at Lu 7:35, wisdom is depicted as having “children.” Wisdom’s children, or works—that is, the evidence produced by John the Baptist and Jesus—prove that the accusations against these two men are false. Jesus is, in effect, saying: ‘Look at the righteous works and conduct, and you will know that the charge is false.’
Son of man: Or “Son of a human.” This expression occurs about 80 times in the Gospels. Jesus used it to refer to himself, evidently emphasizing that he was truly human, born from a woman, and that he was a fitting human counterpart to Adam, having the power to redeem humankind from sin and death. (Ro 5:12, 14-15) The same expression also identified Jesus as the Messiah, or the Christ.—Da 7:13, 14; see Glossary.
Capernaum: From a Hebrew name meaning “Village of Nahum” or “Village of Comforting.” (Na 1:1, ftn.) A city of major importance in Jesus’ earthly ministry, it was located at the NW shore of the Sea of Galilee and was called “his own city” at Mt 9:1.
Capernaum: See study note on Mt 4:13.
heaven: Here used metaphorically to denote a highly favored position.
the Grave: Or “Hades,” that is, the common grave of mankind. (See Glossary, “Grave.”) Here used figuratively to represent the debasement that Capernaum would experience.
it will be more endurable: Evidently used as a form of hyperbole that Jesus may not have intended to be taken literally. (Compare other graphic hyperboles that Jesus used, such as those at Mt 5:18; Lu 16:17; 21:33.) When Jesus said that it would be “more endurable for Sodom in that day,” that is, on Judgment Day (Mt 10:15; 11:22, 24; Lu 10:14), he was not saying that the inhabitants of Sodom must be present on that day. (Compare Jude 7.) He could simply have been emphasizing how unresponsive and culpable most people were in such cities as Chorazin, Bethsaida, and Capernaum. (Lu 10:13-15) It is worth noting that what happened to ancient Sodom had become proverbial and was often mentioned in connection with God’s anger and judgment.—De 29:23; Isa 1:9; La 4:6.
to you: Here the pronoun “you” is plural in Greek.
it will be more endurable for: See study note on Lu 10:12.
for you: Here the pronoun “you” is singular in Greek, evidently addressing the city.
to young children: Or “to childlike ones,” that is, humble, teachable individuals.
loaded down: Those whom Jesus beckons to come were “loaded down” by anxiety and toil. Their worship of Jehovah had become burdensome because of the human traditions that had been added to the Law of Moses. (Mt 23:4) Even the Sabbath, which was meant to be a source of refreshment, had become a burden.—Ex 23:12; Mr 2:23-28; Lu 6:1-11.
I will refresh you: The Greek word for “refresh” can refer both to rest (Mt 26:45; Mr 6:31) and to relief from toil in order to recover and regain strength (2Co 7:13; Phm 7). The context shows that taking on Jesus’ “yoke” (Mt 11:29) would involve service, not rest. The active Greek verb with Jesus as the subject conveys the thought of his rejuvenating and energizing weary ones so that they would desire to take up his light and kindly yoke.
mild-tempered: The inward quality of those who willingly submit to God’s will and guidance and who do not try to dominate others. The Greek term does not imply cowardice or weakness. In the Septuagint, the word was used as an equivalent for a Hebrew word that can be translated “meek” or “humble.” It was used with reference to Moses (Nu 12:3), those who are teachable (Ps 25:9), those who will possess the earth (Ps 37:11), and the Messiah (Zec 9:9; Mt 21:5). Jesus described himself as a mild-tempered, or meek, person.—Mt 11:29.
Take my yoke upon you: Jesus used “yoke” figuratively in the sense of submission to authority and direction. If he had in mind a double yoke, one that God placed upon Jesus, then he would be inviting his disciples to get under the yoke with him and he would assist them. In that case, the phrase could be rendered: “Get under my yoke with me.” If the yoke is one that Jesus himself puts on others, then the reference is to submitting oneself to Christ’s authority and direction as his disciple.—See Glossary, “Yoke.”
mild-tempered: See study note on Mt 5:5.
lowly in heart: The Greek word for “lowly” refers to the quality of being humble and unpretentious; it also occurs at Jas 4:6 and 1Pe 5:5, where it is rendered “humble ones.” The condition of a person’s figurative heart is reflected in his disposition or his attitude toward God and other people.
yourselves: Or “your souls.”—See Glossary, “Soul.”
When Jesus referred to those living in “royal houses” (Lu 7:25) or “houses of kings” (Mt 11:8), his listeners may have been reminded of the many luxurious palaces built by Herod the Great. Shown in the photograph are remains of just one part of a winter palace complex that he built in Jericho. This building included a colonnaded reception hall measuring 29 by 19 m (95 by 62 ft), colonnaded courtyards surrounded by many rooms, and a bathhouse that incorporated heating and cooling systems. Connected to the palace was a multitiered garden. This palace may have been burned during an uprising that occurred a few decades before John the Baptist began his ministry, and it was rebuilt by Herod’s son, Archelaus.
In Bible times, flutes might be made of reed, cane, or even bone or ivory. The flute was one of the most popular of all musical instruments. It was played on joyous occasions, such as at banquets and weddings (1Ki 1:40; Isa 5:12; 30:29), a custom imitated by children in public places. It was also played at times of sadness. Professional mourners were often accompanied by flutists playing mournful tunes. The piece of a flute shown here was found in Jerusalem in a layer of rubble that dates to when the temple was destroyed by the Romans. It is about 15 cm (6 in.) long and is likely made from a bone that was part of the leg of a cow or an ox.
Some marketplaces, like the one depicted here, were located along a road. Vendors often placed so much merchandise in the street that it blocked traffic. Local residents could buy common household goods, pottery, and expensive glassware, as well as fresh produce. Because there was no refrigeration, people needed to visit the market each day to buy supplies. Here a shopper could hear news brought in by traders or other visitors, children could play, and the unemployed could wait to be hired. In the marketplace, Jesus healed the sick and Paul preached. (Ac 17:17) By contrast, the proud scribes and Pharisees loved to be noticed and greeted in these public areas.
The panoramic image shown in this video was taken from Ofir Lookout, which is located near the northeast shore of the Sea of Galilee. Chorazin (2) was only about 3 km (2 mi) from the suggested site of ancient Capernaum (1), the city that Jesus apparently used as a base of operations during his great Galilean ministry of over two years’ duration. The apostles Peter and Andrew lived in Capernaum, and Matthew’s tax office was located there or nearby. (Mr 1:21, 29; 2:1, 13, 14; 3:16; Lu 4:31, 38) Peter and Andrew, along with Philip, originally came from the nearby city of Bethsaida (3). (Joh 1:44) Jesus performed many miracles in or near these three cities.—See Appendix A7-D, Map 3B and A7-E, Map 4.
The towns of Chorazin and Bethsaida were near Capernaum, the city that Jesus apparently used as a home base during his great ministry in Galilee of over two years’ duration. The Jewish inhabitants of those towns saw Jesus perform powerful works that would have moved the idolatrous inhabitants of Tyre and Sidon to repentance. For example, it was in the area of Bethsaida that Jesus miraculously fed more than 5,000 people and later cured a blind man.—Mt 14:13-21; Mr 8:22; Lu 9:10-17.
One type of wooden yoke was a bar or frame fitted to a person’s shoulders, and loads were suspended from it on each side of the body. Another type of yoke was a wooden bar or frame that was placed over the necks of two draft animals when they pulled a load.